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Dia do Joalheiro
(Jeweler). Since the discovery of gold, about four thousand years ago, man became much interested in this precious metal. Early civilizations such as the Etruscans, Greek and Romans processed gold in a variety of ornaments. In the Renaissance era, gold was decorated with enamel and precious stones. In the Baroque era, golden jewelry were considered as social status symbols. Rococo jewelry became more asymmetric and lighter. Neo-classicist were inspired upon the Greek and Roman eras. Since the Industrial Revolution, and the discovery of giant mines in Southern Africa, diamonds were introduced in jewelry. Early 20th century, the famous French jewelers Cartier and Boucheron introduced the so-called ‘belle époque’ style, inspired upon the 17th century. After the great wars, jewelry were also considered as investments, while – thanks to the introduction of synthetic gemstones – cheaper jewelry was produced.
Examples of jewels from the Victorian Era (1836-1901)
|As verdadeiras joias brasileiras
Dia do Desporto Amador
Dia da Proclamação da República
(Proclamation of the Republic of Brazil). In 1889, the power of the Brazilian monarchy, governed by emperor Pedro II, was waning. Attempts to rescue the monarchy (for example more civilian rights and more autonomy for the provinces) came too late. The Brazilian people lest their faith in the monarchy, but also did not fight it. Therefore, the people were just witnessing the military coup, which deposited the emperor and dissolved the parliament on 15 November. The coup was planned on 20 November, but was brought forward due to (what proved to be false) messages about the pending arrest of Benjamin Constant and marshal Deodoro de Fonseca. Therefore, on 15 November, Deodoro commanded the occupation of the military headquarters and the ministry of War in Rio de Janeiro. The emperor still tried to rescue his reign, but in vain. He was ordered to leave the country, together with his family. On 17 November, the Imperial Family moved to Europa, after having reigned over Brazil for 77 years. Pedro II reigned no less than 49 years. Following the coup, Deodoro was asked to govern Brazil, and therefore be considered as the first President of the new Republic of Brazil.
PROCLAMATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF BRAZIL
|Repórter Justiça – Proclamação da República (1/3)
||Repórter Justiça – Proclamação da República (2/3)
|Repórter Justiça – Proclamação da República (3/3)
||Hino da Proclamação da República
Installation of Prudente de Moraes as third president of Brazil.
Prudente José de Morais e Barros (1841-1902), became the third president after Deodoro de Fonseca (1889-1891) and Floriano de Peixoto (1891-1894). Prudente won the elections in 1894, and thus became the first civilian president, and the first of the so-called coffee culture oligarchy. During his presidency, Prudente had to deal with rebellious groups. He managed to force a peace agreement with the revolutionaries in the South,. In contrast, he failed in his attempt to crush the rebellion of Canudos in the Northeast. After his presidency, Prudente devoted himself to the legal profession. In 1902, he died of the consequences of TB.
Installation of Manuel Ferraz de Campos Salles as fourth President of Brazil.
Manuel (1841- 1913) was a lawyer. He was governor of São Paulo, when he was elected President. During his government, drastic reforms of public funds were introduced: the so-called funding loans. After his presidency, Manuel was senator for São Paulo, and diplomat in Argentina.
PRESIDENTS OF THE OLD REPUBLIC
|Presidentes da República Velha
Installation of Francisco de Paulo Rodrigues Alves as fifth President of Brazil.
Francisco (1848-1919), born in the state of São Paulo and active as a lawyer, already had broad political experience during the Imperial Era. Moreover, he was Minister of Treasury during the governments of Peixoto and Moraes. During his presidency, Francisco, introduced drastic reforms in the capital. The reputation of a dirty city literally got cleared with the construction of a sewage system. Small houses were demolished, bigger houses were built. The people in Rio even started a rebellion, when the compulsory vaccination, as suggested by Oswaldo Cruz, was introduced. Francisco was re-elected in 1918, but his weak health did not allow him to complete his second mandate. In 1919, he died of the consequences of Spanish influenza.
Installation of Afonso Pena as sixth President of Brazil.
Afonso Augusto Moreira Pena (1847-1909), from Minas Gerais, already had broad experience as Minister of War, and of Justice, during the Imperial Era. Afonso is the founder of the Law Facultiy in Minas Gerais, and was director of what is now Banco do Brasil. During his government, the state intervened in the coffee market, for the first time. Afonso did not complete his term: he died in 1909.
Installation of Hermes de Fonseca as seventh President of Brazil.
Hermes Rodrigues da Fonseca (1855-1923) was a cousin of Deodoro da Fonseca, the first President. Hermes, from Rio Grande do Sul, was a Freemason, and had a military career. He became the first military (marshal) who was elected president. Hermes badly needed his military experiences during his government: from revolts by marines to rebellion in the South and Northeast. In 1915, when the leader of his party was murdered, Hermes fled to Europe and returned only six years later. He became involved in a revolt against the government and was arrested. Six months later, Hermes was released. In a weak health, he moved to Petrópolis, where he died in 1923.
Installation of Vencesláu Bráz as ninth President of Brazil.
Vencesláu Bráz Pereira Gomes (1868-1966), from Minas Gerais (his native city, Brásopolis, is named after him) was president of Minas Gerais when he was elected Federal President. In 1917, during his government, Brazilian vessels were destroyed by German warships. As a result, Brazil declared war to Germany. Vencesláu took the decision to burn no less than three million bales of coffee, in order to stop the collapse of the coffee prices. In 1917, he made use of military power to battle large-scale strikes. In 1966, he died at the age of 98.
Installation of Delfim Moreira as tenth President of Brazil.
Delfim Moreira da Costa Ribeiro (1868-1920), from Minas Gerais, was a lawyer. As a vice president, he was the successor of the elected Rodrigues Alves, who did not assume the presidency because of his weak health. Also Delfim did not have a strong health. The Brazilian Constitutional Law defined that new elections should be held, when the president died within the first half of his mandate. On 13 May 1919, Epitácio Pessoa won the elections and succeeded Delfim on 28 July 1919. Delfim became his vice president. During his government, Delfim had to deal with subversive anarchists, mainly foreigners, who were expelled substantially. Delfim died in 1920.
Installation of Artur Bernardes as twelfth President of Brazil.
Artur da Silva Bernardes (1875-1955), from Minas Gerais, was president of Minas Gerais when he was elected Federal President. His government was characterized by much social unrest and many revolts. in 1930, after his presidency, he was one of the leaders of the revolt in Minas Gerais. In 1932, Artur was arrested and was expelled. In 1934, he was granted amnesty.
Installation of Washington Luiz as thirteenth President of Brazil.
Washington Luís Pereira de Sousa (1869-1957), from Rio de Janeiro, has served as president and senator of São Paulo when he was elected Federal President. During his government, Washington had to deal with many problems. There were many revolts during the Twenties, and the situation did not improve after the Wall Street Crash in 1929. The coffee crisis intensified and indirectly threatened the government’s power. In 1930, Washington supported Júlio Prestes, who won the presidential elections. The murder of João Pessoa, candidate vice president of opposing presidential candidate Getúlio Vargas, ignited more unrest. A coup deposited Washington, and he was expelled. Washington stayed in Europe and in the United States, and only returned to Brazil in 1947.
Start of the Novembrada, a military revolt against the Portuguese in Recife.
The year 1831 may be considered as a very thrilling year in Brazilian history. On 7 April, emperor Pedro I abdicated, but his five year-old son (Pedro II) was too young to become emperor. The power vacuum ignited many revolts against the (federal) government, and also against the influences of the former (read: Portuguese) rulers. The Portuguese were expelled from Recife, and they arrived in Rio de Janeiro, almost naked. The local authorities gave orders to provide them clothes. In addition to the Novembrada, Recife had other revolts in September (Setembrizada), and in April (Abrilada).
Foundation of Sociedade Esportiva do Gama.
Gama is one of the major soccer clubs from tiny Distrito Federal, the Federal District in which capital Brasília is located. Their best achievement was the championship of the Brazilian Série B (Second Division), in 1998. The club was promoted to the Série A. Subsequently, Gama was relegated to the third division and now fluctuates between the second and fourth division.
|Gama 1×0 XV de Piracicaba – Campeonato Brasileiro Série B 1998
Third world championship for Nélson Piquet in Formula One.
His direct adversary Nigel Mansell did not start in the final two races, as the consequence of a serious crash in Japan. Although Nélson did not win racing points in the final two races, his advantage in the ranking was sufficient enough to claim the world championship. Nélson also won the championships of 1981 and 1983.
|Gp Japão 1987 – Nelson Piquet Tri-Campeão – Melhores Momentos
||Nelson Piquet Especial. 1987. Parte 1/5
|Nelson Piquet Especial. 1987. Parte 2/5
||Nelson Piquet Especial. 1987. Parte 3/5
|Nelson Piquet Especial. 1987. Parte 4/5
||Nelson Piquet Especial. 1987. Parte 5/5
By Adriano Antoine Robbesom