Dia de Finados
(All Souls’ Day). Already in the fifth century, the Catholic Church dedicated one day per year to the dead. In the 13th century, three popes issued decrees that obligated Catholics to dedicate one day per year to the dead. Two centuries later, 2 November was introduced as All Souls’ Day, one day after All Saints’ Day.
DIA DE FINADOS
|Qual o significado do Dia de Finados para as religiões?
||Cemitérios deverão receber muitas visitas no Dia de Finados
Creation of the municipality of Cruzeiro (SP)
Cruzeiro is located in north-east São Paulo, at the border with the state of Minas Gerais, and near the border with Rio de Janeiro. The city now counts about 77 thousand inhabitants. Already in the 16th century, expeditions from São Vicente (SP) tried to establish passage routes to Rio de Janeiro through the Paraíba Valley, where Cruzeiro is located. Commercial routes were established, and the first people stayed in the valley. In 1781, Sargent-Major Antônio Lopes de Lavra started the construction of a chapel that was dedicated to Nossa Senhora da Conceição do Embaú. Eventually, more people settled and started commercial activities with local products. In 1846, the settlement became a municipality, and in 1871, it was renamed into Conceição do Cruzeiro. With the construction of the railway through the valley, another station was created: Estação Cruzeiro. This railway, linking tree states (São Paullo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro) with each other, was of importance for coffee transport. On 2 November 1901, a state law (789) transferred the seat from Conceição de Cruzeiro to Estação Cruzeiro; the municipality was renamed into Cruzeiro. In 1932, Cruzeiro was the final city to surrender during the 1932 Constitutionalist Revolution. It therefore was awarded the title ‘ Capital of the 1932 Constitutionalist Revolution’ in 2005.
|DO PASSADO PARA O PRESENTE – CRUZEIRO SP
||Cruzeiro SP – 110 anos da cidade planície
|Sobre a cidade de Cruzeiro – São Paulo SP
||Hino ao Município de Cruzeiro – SP
Death by hanging of the revolution leaders Beckman and Sampaio, in Maranhão.
The expulsion of the Dutch in 1654 and a sugar crisis caused economic stagnation in North Brazil. It was no longer allowed to enslave indians, importation of African slaves was too expensive. With the intention to improve economical conditions, Portugal created Companhia do Comércio do Maranhão, the chamber of commerce, which gained a monopoly position, in 1682. Soon, the Companhia was accused of abuse: It didn’t meet the required number of slaves, it used falsified weights and scales, its prices were too high. Locals, led by the brothers Manuel and Tomás Beckman (landowners) and Jorge Sampaio, a large crowd invaded the Companhia, while the Governor of Maranhão was absent. They also expelled the Jesuits (who complained about the enslavery of indians) and ousted the Governor. Portugal reacted with the appointment of a new Governor, who imprisoned the rebels and restored order. Manuel Beckman and Jorge Sampaio were condemned to death by hanging. Their execution took place on 2 November, while some source report 10 November as their execution date.
|Revolta de Beckman
By Adriano Antoine Robbesom © 2007, 2015
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