Dia do Armistício
(Armistice Day). Today, the end of the First World War (1914-1918) is commemorated. Brazil was not directly involved in this global war. There were large colonies of German migrants in Southern Brazil, and the Brazilian minister of Foreign Affairs – Lauro Muller- had German roots. However, German aggression also hit Brazil: off the French coast, the vessel ‘Paraná’ was torpedoed (5 April 1917). In Rio de Janeiro, German trade houses were invaded, and one week later, the German consul was forced to leave Brazil. On 26 October 1917, after the resignation of Muller, Brazil declared war to Germany. A Brazilian expedition force was organized, but at the time of the start of the expedition mission, the armistice was signed. The plan was to send the expedition force to Mesopotamia, because of the climate. Nevertheless, some missions were sent, and some soldiers were involved in a number of battles.
President Brás signed the Declaration of War source
Dia do Diretor de Escola
(School director). This day is on 11 or 12 November? Some research on the internet did not provide a clear answer. Even government sites show both dates. The school director, therefore, receives attention on both days.
Indeed: in Brazil, one may enter some course to become school director. source
Deposition of President Carlos Luz by a military coup
Only three days earlier, Carlos Coimbra Luz (1894-1961), was installed as President. As head of the Chamber of Deputies, he was the next in line of succession. President João Café Filho decided, after more than one year (succeeding President Getúlio Vargas, after his suicide in 1954) to step down. On 11 November, Minister of Defense (Teixeira Lott), backed by the army, deposed Carlos Luz, since they feared that Carlos would not step down to make place for his elected successor: Juscelino Kubitschek. The military leaders put forward the chairman of the Senate, Nereu de Oliveira Ramos (1888-1958), as interim-president. Ramos stayed in office until 31 January 1956, when Kubitschek was installed as his successor.
The five Brazilian presidents between 1954 and 1956
from left to right: Vargas, Café Filho, Luz, Ramos, Kubitschek
Start of the Vaccination Revolt in Rio de Janeiro.
Early 20th century, Rio de Janeiro was a dirty city. Many people, mainly migrants, died because of yellow fever, tuberculosis, and plague. President Francisco de Paulo Rodrigues Alves wanted to end this miserable situation. He called the expert assistance of Oswaldo Cruz, in order to improve the hygienic circumstances. Rio had undergone a recent metamorphosis: traditional dwellings were demolished in order to create space fro wide boulevards and small flats. Oswald worked thoroughly. Rat fighting teams were sent, and people were urge to remove garbage from the streets. In order to battle yellow fever, a legally mandatory vaccination program was introduced. The people did not see the effectiveness of the vaccination; rumors about the negative effects were spread around. They started revolts that lasted for a week, in Rio. Throughout the city, barricades were set up, and large groups were fighting with the police. As a result, about thirty people died in these clashes, and more than one hundred wounded, and one thousand captured. More than half of the captured were deported to Acre, near the Bolivian border, in order to work there. One a few returned afterwards.
Barricades in Rio
By Adriano Antoine Robbesom © 2007, 2015