Dia da Injustiça
(Injustice). A day that invites to think about justice and injustice. Some quotes about injustice:
“Iniuriam aures facilius quam oculi ferunt.”
“The ears endure a wrongdoing more willingly than the eyes.”
“Quem comete uma injustiça é sempre mais infeliz que o injustiçado.”
“Committing injustice is more unworthy than suffering injustice.”
“Accipere quam facere praestat iniuriam.”
“Better to suffer injustice rather than to commit injustice.“
Dia do Aviador Naval
(Naval aviator). On October 14, 1911, Jorge Henrique Möller achieved, as first Brazilian marine, his flying certificate, in France. On 23 August 1916, the Escolal de Aviação da Marinha (navy aviation school) was founded, on the island ‘Ilha das Enxadas’, in the Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro. In the same month, the Brazilian navy received the first plane, a Curtiss F seaplane. Between the great wars, planes were built in Brazil, using German licenses. During the Second World War, the navy fleet and the personnel was transferred to the air force. After this war, a new navy fleet was formed, and they held exercises with the Americans, In 1956, the Navy purchased the British aircraft carrier HMS Vengeance, which underwent a complete revision at the Dutch Verolme United Shipyards. The vessel was renamed in Navio-Aeródromo Ligeiro (NAel) Minas Gerais.
“Assegurar o apoio aéreo adequado às Operações Navais, a fim decontribuir para a condição de pleno e pronto emprego do Poder Naval onde e quando for necessário.”
|NAe A-12 SÃO PAULO – O Porta Aviões Brasileiro (São Paulo Carrier)
||Operações aéreas no NAeL Minas Gerais
|Futuro Porta-Aviões do Brasil :
NAe A-16 Amazonas
|Esquadrão Falcão VF-1 / Marinha do Brasil
|Porta-Aviões São Paulo – 1/3
||Porta-Aviões São Paulo – 2/3
|Porta-Aviões São Paulo – 3/3
Dia da Intendência da Aeronáutica
(Air force administration). On August 23, 1945, the administrative department of the air force was formed, with José Epaminondas de Aquino Granja (1897-1975) as general manager. The day of air force administration was introduced in 1969, with José as patron of the department.
INTENDÊNCIA DA AERONÁUTICA
|Solenidade celebra Dia da Intendência
Dia Internacional para Recordar o Comércio de Escravos e a Abolição
(International Day of Remembrance of Slavery and Abolishment). Slave trade took part of some kind of triangular arrangements: Products were shipped to Africa for the payment of the captured slaves. The slaves were transported to America, and the products, made by slave labor, were shipped to Europe. It is estimated that at least 17 million slaves were transported from Africa to America. In the night from August 22 to 23, 1791, the rebellion in Santo Domingo (actual Haiti and Dominican Republic) started, being a turning point in the abolishment of trans-Atlantic slave trade. Slaves, who had escaped, had organized themselves and killed every white men they met, and put fire to their possessions. They carried the corpse of a white baby as their mascot. This rebellion killed ten thousand slaves and two thousand colonists. Two years later, slavery was abolished on t he island of Hispaniola. In 1803, French dominion of his island came to an end. Only in 1888, Brazil abolished slavery, as one of the latter nations. The day of Remembrance was introduced in Haiti in 1998, followed by Senegal in 1999. In 1998, the day was also adopted by the United Nations. This day is different of the ‘International Day of Remembrance of Victims of Slavery and Transatlantic Slave Trade’ (25 March).
SLAVERY IN BRAZIL
|A ESCRAVIDÃO NO BRASIL EM FOTOS REAIS INÉDITAS
||Escravidão no Brasil – Negros
Death of Marshal Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca (1827-1892), first Brazilian president (1889-1891).
Da Fonseca made his career in the Brazilian army, and participated in the wars against Cisplatina (actual Uruguay) and Paraguay. He led the military coup to end the imperial monarchy, and proclaimed the Brazilian Republic on November 15, 1889. Soon Da Fonseca had conflicts with the military staff, but he was elected president in 1891, thanks to the pressure by the military leaders. Within one year, he was forced to step down, when admiral Custódio de Melo threatened to bomb Rio de Janeiro. Marshal Floriano Vieira Peixoto succeeded him as Brazilian president.
DEODORO A FONSECA
|Construtores do Brasil – Deodoro da Fonseca
Foundation of the Brazilian stock exchange Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (BOVESPA).
On August 23, 1890, a group led by Emílio Rangel Pestana founded the Bolsa Livre, the actual BOVESPA, in São Paulo. This stock exchange was shut down in 1891 already, but reopened again, in 1895, as the Bolsa de Fundos Públicos de São Paulo. At that time, the stocks were registered om huge black stone plaques; therefore, this ear was called the “Idade da Pedra”. In 1934, the stock exchange, transferred to Palácio do Café, was renamed into Bolsa Oficial de Valores de São Paulo. The stock exchange received its actual name in 1967. In 1972, the exchange became automated, to be the first in Brazil, and computerized in 1990. From 2000 to 2006, all regional exchanges in Brazil merged into the BOVESPA. BOVESPA is market leader in Southern America with about seventy percent of the market share of this continent.
|Bovespa Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo Brasil Brazil Mercado de Ações
By Adriano Antoine Robbesom © 2007, 2015