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Dia da Astronomia
(Astronomy). The day refers to the birth of Dom Pedro II, Brazil’s second emperor, who was an amateur astronomer and a great initiator of science in Brazil. The Sociedade Brasileira de Astronomia, founded in 1947, chose the emperor as the patron of Brazilian astronomy.
Dia do Samba
(Samba). Samba is tightly linked to Brazilian carnival, to Brazilian music. The day was an initiative of a Bahian councilman, Luis Monteiro da Costa, to honor Ary Barroso. The day of 2 December was the day when Ary Barroso visited Salvador for the first time, and brought samba beyond the borders of Rio de Janeiro. In Salvador, Dia do Samba is commemorated at Pelourinho, where local sambistas will be present. In Rio de Janeiro, Dia do Samba is celebrated ‘Pagode do Trem. The idea of pagode do trem originated from the district of Oswaldo Cruz (Rio de Janeiro), when they created a movement to revitalize the district: ‘Acorda, Oswaldo Cruz’. In that time, sambistas were persecuted by the police; therefore, the sambistas, among them was Paulo da Portela, used train wagons for their meetings and musical presentations.
PAGODE DO TREM
|DIA NACIONAL DO SAMBA – Pagode no Trem
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Dia do Sambista
(Samba dancer/ samba musician)
Dia do Advogado Criminalista
(Lawyer of Criminal Cases)
Dia dos Produtores de Rádio e TV
(TV and Radio Producers)
Dia Nacional do Relações Públicas
Dia Pan-Americano da Saúde
Dia Internacional para a Abolição da Escravatura (ONU)
(International Day for Abolition of Slavery). This day marks the adoption, by the UN General Assembly, of the UN Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of others (Resolution 317(IV) of 2 December 1949). Even now, about 21 million women, men, and children are enslaved all over the world. On 2 December 1859, John Brown, radical abolitionist of slavery, was hanged in Charles Town, Virginia (USA). He was found guilty of treason against the state of Virginia. Brown believed that armed insurrection was the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in he USA. He was captured while he participated in an failed raid on a federal armory. His execution eventually led to the American Civil War, which started in 1861.
‘No, not tired; but don’t keep me waiting longer than necessary’ – John Brown’s words at the time of his execution.
Birth of D. Pedro II
Pedro de Alcântara João Carlos Leopoldo Salvador Bibiano Francisco Xavier de Paula Leocádio Miguel Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga was born in the Palace of São Cristovão, Rio de Janeiro. His mother was Archduchess Maria Leopoldina of Austria, daughter of Franz II, the last emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. His father was Dom Pedro I, who had declared Brazilian independence in 1822. In 1831, he suddenly abdicated and left for Portugal, leaving his five-year-old son with the heavy burden of a fragile Brazilian empire. Pedro II eventually managed to transform Brazil in a stable parliamentary monarchy, and was very popular among Brazilians. However, a group of military leaders overthrew the emperor and exiled him. Pedro died two years later, in Paris.
Creation of Colégio D. Pedro II, in Rio de Janeiro
In the former Seminário de São Joaquim, the public school was founded, on the twelfth birthday of Dom Pedro II. Its first campus is still functioning. At present more than twelve thousand students study in one of the twelve campuses in Rio and neighboring cities. Some famous teachers were: Euclides da Cunha, Heitor Villa-Lobos, and Manuel Bandeira. Some famous students were: Floriano Peixoto, Joaquim Nabuco, Nilo Peçanha, Washington Luis, Noel Rosa, Oswaldo Cruz, Mário Lago, and Cássia Eller.
Creation of the capitania de Minas Gerais, gaining independence from São Paulo
D. Lourenço de Almeida was appointed as the first governor.
Premiere of the opera ‘O Guarani’, after the script by Carlos Gomes, in Rio de Janeiro
The premiere was held in Teatro Lírico Fluminense, on the birthday of emperor Dom Pedro II.
Realization of elections for the appointment of deputies in Assembléia Constituinte (Constitutional Assembly)
Getúlio Vargas banned all political parties, per decree nº 37.
Eurico Gaspar Dutra elected President of Brazil by popular vote.
PSD gained a majority in the Constituinte (Constitutional Assembly) .
By Adriano Antoine Robbesom
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