1921 Issue of the decree for the demolition of Morro do Castelo in Rio de Janeiro.
Mayor Carlos Sampaio declared that the district was impoverished, and he needed the space for the installation of an commemorative exposition of the first centenary of Brazilian independence.
1535 Arrival of Duarte Coelho Perreira, the first governor of the Capitania of Pernambuco.
Start of the expedition of Pedro Álvares Cabral, who reached the Brazilian coast on 22 April 1500
1825 Recognition of the Brazilian independence by Mexico.
2001 Start of diplomatic relations between Brazil and North Korea.
1851 Foundation of the city of Joinville (SC).
Joinville is a city located in the northeast of the state of Santa Catarina, at 180 km from the capital, Florianópolis. According to IBGE, the city counted 521 thousand inhabitants in 2011. Joinville has a high living standard, and ranks 13th of all Brazilian municipalities. The first inhabitants in the region might be dated back from 4800 B.C. These primitive men were farmers, but they also caught fish. At the time of the arrival of the first migrants – from Portuguese origin – , the region was inhabited by Tupi-Guarani Indian tribes. The migrants, probably from São Vicente, arrived with their black slaves, and started to grow manioc, sugar cane, rice, and corn.
On May 1, 1843, Dona Francisca Carolina, daughter of emperor Dom Pedro I, married François Ferdinand, prince of Joinville (French department of Haute-Marne), and received some land near the São Francisco colony, as a wedding present. Five years later, the French king Louis Philippe lost the throne, and François had to seek refugee in Hamburg. The couple suffered financial problems, and sold part of their properties in Brazil to a German senator, who started to colonize this region.
The first migrants arrived in 1851, and they founded Colônia Dona Francisca. One year later, the name was changed into Joinville, in honor of the prince. Remarkably, the prince and his Brazilian wife never had visited their Brazilian belongings. The mansion (Palácio dos Príncipes de Joinville) that was built for the couple, now is a museum for colonization and migration. Joinville became intensely industrialized between 1950 and 1980, and therefore gained the nickname of ‘Brazilian Manchester’.
Data Magna de Pernambuco
(Pernambucan Revolution). This day was introduced in 2007. See below for more details.
Ocean liner Príncipe de Astúrias sank near the coast of Ilhabela (São Paulo)
The ocean liner carried almost six hundred registered passengers, and probably more than eight hundred illegal passengers, who tried to escape the great war in Europe. More than 475 people died. In 1989, parts of the vessel were blown up. The freight – including statues for a monument in Buenos Aires – were retrieved.
The settlement of the Portuguese royal family (since 1808 in Brazil) hadn’t received approval from all Brazilians. Especially the Northeast (including Pernambuco) was suffering economical malaise. The Great Drought of 1816 had destroyed large part of the harvests. The aversion against the Portuguese grew, as well as the patriotism of Pernambucans. For example, during Catholic masses, wine was replaced by locally brewed aguardente, the host was no longer made of wheat flour, but of manioc flour. The revolution expanded to neighboring states, but was suppressed by the Portuguese army, in cooperation with Portuguese merchants and landowners. The leaders of the revolution were arrested and condemned to death. But it was king Dom João VI pardoned them.
“Quando a voz da pátria chama
tudo deve obedecer;
Por ela a morte é suave
Por ela cumpre morrer “
source Flag of the Pernambucan Revolt. The three stars
represent the states of Pernambuco, Paraíba, and
Rio Grande do Norte. The actual flag of
Pernambuco has maintained one star.
Vila (village) São João del-Rei gained the status of a city.
This historical city in the state of Minas Gerais (nearby Tiradentes) attracts many tourists.
Premiere of the movie “A Voz do Carnaval“.
Legendary actress Carmem Miranda made her starring debut in this movie.
Hanging of Manoel da Motta Coqueiro.
Manoel had murdered Francisco Bennedito da Silva and his family.
Death of Mário Covas Júnior (1930-2001), former governor of São Paulo.
Mário died because of the consequences of bladder cancer. Covas, engineer, entered the local politics. He was opposed against the military dictatorship; as a result, he lost his political rights. In 1989, Covas was presidential candidate, and ended fourth. In 1994, Covas became governor of the state of São Paulo. The almost bankrupt state underwent drastic reforms: many state companies and public services were privatized during his mandate.
“O Brasil é um país de extremos. Por um tempo,se disse que era preciso crescer para depois distribuir o bolo. Outros diziam e sustentam que se tem é que comer e pouco importa se o bolo será feito depressa ou devagar. O que eu acho é que o bolo deve ser feito e comido concomitantemente.” “Eu não vou morrer porque não quero morrer.” (2001)
(Brazilian Flag Day). The colorful Brazilian flag is well-known. Less known are the facts about the flag. The stars represent the constellations in the southern hemisphere that was observed from Rio de Janeiro, on 15 November 1889, at 8.30 a.m. local time, the exact time of the proclamation of the Brazilian Republic. The stars represent the states and the Federal District. The most recent modification dates from 1992, when Tocantins became a new state. The flag is designed by Raimundo Teixeira Mendes and Miguel Lemos, and created by Décio Vilares. Four days following the proclamation of the Republic, Benjamin Constant issued Decree no. 4, about he Brazilian flag. The motto “Ordem e Progresso” on the flag, is a quote from Benjamin Constant:
“O amor por princípio, a ordem por base, o progresso por fim”
Dia Internacional do Xadrez
(International Chess Day). Although this day isn’t included on the International Chess Federation (FIDE) calendar, the day is celebrated in South America. This day is the birthday of the first South-American chess grandmaster, José Raul Capablanca (1888-1942) from Cuba. José was one of the first unofficial grandmasters, and was chess world champion from 1921 to 1927. He is considered as one of the best players of all times. Besides playing chess, José was a diplomat and author of books about chess. José died of a cardiac arrest while he was analyzing a chess match.
1889 Introduction of the Seal of the Brazilian Republic.
Article 3 of Decree No. 4 – that also ratified the introduction of the Brazilian flag – details about the Seal of the Republic.
Thousandth goal scored by soccer player Pelé.
Pelé scored his thousandth goal for his team Santos in the match against Vasco (Santos won with 2-1) in the Maracanã Stadium. He scored in the 33rd minute of the second half. The match was interrupted to allow Pelé run a lap of honor.
1709 Elevation of Recife to the status of Vila, per Carta Régia.
In 1537, Recife was founded by Portuguese colonists. Neighboring Olinda was founded two years earlier. One century later, during the Dutch invasion, the city of Olinda was set on fire and completely destroyed. The inhabitants fled to Recife. Dutch governor Maurice of Nassau built a new city, which was named after him: Mauriciópolis. This city was destroyed by the Dutch themselves when they had to give up the colony in 1654. In 1709, Recife was elevated to the status of Via by Royal Decree, and thereby gained independence from Olinda. In 1823, Recife became a city. Four years later, Recife became capital of the province of Pernambuco. Recife, now hosting more than 1.5 million inhabitants, is widely known as “Venice of Brazil”.
1724 Death of Father Bartolomeu Lourenço de Gusmão (1685-1724), a Brazilian-Portuguese aviation pioneer.
The priest was born in Santos (Brazil) and went to the seminary in Bahia. At the age of fifteen, he moved to Portugal, in order to complete his studies in Religious Law. Bartolomeu also studied Physics and Maths. When he was back in Brazil, he constructed a water pump, which was able to pump up river water to the abbey, where he stayed. He got the idea to use hot air to elevate objects in the air. His first experiment with a hot air balloon caught fire immediately, but his second attempt was successful: the object reached a height of four meters. This experiment was done on 5 August 1709. Because of these experiments, he gained the nickname “Padre Voador”, the flying priest. He also had stayed in Holland, were one of his inventions was registered: ” A system of lenses with which meat can be roasted by sunlight” (“Sistema de lentes para assar carne ao Sol”). Unfortunately, Father Bartolomeu became one of the many victims of the Inquisition and fled to Spain. In Toledo, he died at the age of 39.
(Muslim community). A day that may ignite certain discussions in Europe, but in Brazil, where Jews and Muslims are able to live in peace with each other, such a day will not cause problems. This day has been introduced in 2006, to promote fraternization between the Muslim community and other religions. In São Paulo, the day of the Muslim is on May 12.
ISLAM IN BRAZIL
Islam no Brasil (Parte 1 de 4) – Programa Mulheres – TV Gazeta – Ramadan 2007 – Sao Paulo/SP
Islam no Brasil (Parte 2 de 4) – Programa Mulheres – TV Gazeta – Ramadan 2007 – Sao Paulo/SP
Islam no Brasil (Parte 3 de 4) – Programa Mulheres – TV Gazeta – Ramadan 2007 – Sao Paulo/SP
Islam no Brasil (Parte 4 de 4) – Programa Mulheres – TV Gazeta – Ramadan 2007 – Sao Paulo/SP
O caminho para a felicidade 1/6
O caminho para a felicidade 2/6
O caminho para a felicidade 3/6
O caminho para a felicidade 4/6
O caminho para a felicidade 5/6
O caminho para a felicidade 6/6
Dia da Cruz
((Catholic) Cross). The cross, with or without the statue of Jesus Christ, serves as a symbol for the catholic community. In Brazil, it is common to make the cross sign when one enters a church or a chapel (sometimes they kneel too), or when one passes a church or a cemetery.
CHRISTIANITY IN BRAZIL
Catolicismo no Brasil
Metade do Brasil será evangélica em 2020 – Parte 1
Metade do Brasil será evangélica em 2020 – Parte 2
Metade do Brasil será evangélica em 2020 – Parte 3
Dia do Operador de Redes Telefônicas
Dia do Frevo
(Frevo). The frevo is a traditional dance in the northeast of Brazil, and has its origin in Pernambuco. During carnival, you are not able to escape frevo in cities like Recife and Olinda. It is a dance with a fast rhythm and acrobatic movements. The origin of the word ‘frevo’ (swirling, boiling) already indicates that this dance makes the crowd to dance too. The dance has its origins from (Spanish) marching music, and the so-called maxixe, at the end of the 19th century. The first notification of frevo in a Brazilian newspaper took place in 1907. Since the thirties of the past century, Frevo has evolved into three different styles:
(1) Frevo-de-Rua: The most common and most unique frevo style. The music is not accompanied by some lyrics, but is purely based upon dancing.
(2) Frevo-Canção: The sung frevo. The hymn of the carnival in Recife is in this frevo style.
(3) Frevo-de-Bloco: The frevo is represented by a bloco, a group. They play and dance through the streets. Behind this bloco, a huge dancing crowd.
As already mentioned, the frevo dance is an acrobatic dance, generally accompanied with a little and colorful umbrella. The origin of the acrobatic elements (according to some sources, more than 120!) is to be found in the capoeira dance. The umbrella was to replace weapons in this capoeira dance, when it was not allowed for the dances to use weapons.
“Efervecência, agitação, confusão, rebuliço; apertão nas reuniões de grande massa popular no seu vai-e-vem em direções opostas como pelo Carnaval”
Capote da Madrugada – A História do Frevo
Trabalho de Arte – Frevo
ESCOLA DO FREVO – PERNAMBUCO
Brazil – 2009 World Culture Folk Dance Competition
FREVO: OS MELHORES 1
FREVO: OS MELHORES 2
100 ANOS DE FREVO 1 DEYVSON
100 ANOS DE FREVO 2 FOFINHA
100 ANOS DE FREVO 3 BHRUNNO
100 ANOS DE FREVO 4 JUNINHO
100 ANOS DE FREVO 5 INAÊ
100 ANOS DE FREVO 6
100 ANOS DE FREVO 7
100 ANOS DE FREVO 8 MINININHO
100 ANOS DE FREVO 9 CARLA
100 ANOS DE FREVO GLOBO
1844 Recognition of the independence of Paraguay by the Brazilian government.
Although Paraguay became independent already in 1811, only 33 years later Brazil recognized its neighbor. Earlier in 1844, Carlos Antônio Lopez succeeded dictator José Gaspar Rodriguez, who died in France, as president of Paraguay. In 1862, he was succeeded by his son, Francisco Solano Lopez. His support to the independence struggles of Uruguay, ultimately became his Waterloos, and with him a great part of the Paraguayan people lost their lives during the war of Paraguay against the Triple Alliance (Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay).
Especial: Independencia del Paraguay
La historia del Paraguay independiente y soberano en 3D
1741 Foundation of the city of Viamão (RS).
At that time, Rio Grande do Sul only was a passage to Colônia, a city in the Spanish colony (now Uruguay), founded by Portuguese. In 1741, Francisco Carvalho da Cunha, settled himself in the fields of Viamão, and constructed his dwelling ‘Estância Grande’. From 1766, following the Spanish invasion of capital Rio Grande, until 1773, Viamão was capital of the capitania São Pedro do Rio Grande. In 1773, Porto Alegre became the capital. At present, Viamão counts 239 thousand inhabitants (IBGE, 2010). Once a year, the Arroz com Leite festival is organized: rice and milk, the two principal agricultural products that are produced in Viamão.
Viamão do século passado
Viamão – Festa Arroz com Leite 2007
1822 Prince Regent Pedro I was presented to the Brazilian people, in Teatro São João, Rio de Janeiro.
Seven days after his theatrical proclamation of the Brazilian independence, the people of Rio de Janeiro met their future emperor.
1974 Inauguration of the first metro service in São Paulo.
The first metro line of seven kilometers went from Jabaquara to Vila Mariana, in the north-south direction. Prior to the inauguration, the people received extensive information about the use of escalators and electronic ticket machines, quite new at that time. At present, five metro lines are in use, with 64 stations over a total distance of 74.3 kilometers. The fifth metro line is partly in use, and it is expected to be fully operational in 2014. In 33 years time, the 117 trains made in total 300 million kilometers, almost 400 times a return ticket to Estação Luna (moon). On daily average, about three million Paulistas use the metro. About 17 billion people in 33 years time. The metro in São Paulo has a good reputation.
METRO IN SÃO PAULO
História do Metrô de São Paulo
Globo Reporter: Metrô de São Paulo
São Paulo Metro first world, the Yellow Line
Metro Sp – Hora do Rush
Sao Paulo Subway – Blue Line – Linha Azul Metro de Sao Paulo
(Actor). Besides this Dia do Ator, also the Dia do Ator Profissional, the professional actor, exists, on March 27.
Dia do Artista de Teatro
Dia Nacional da Aviação Agrícola
(Brazilian Day of Agricultural Aviation). To keep control of the enormous areas of cropland, water lands, and forest, airplanes are essential. On August 19, 1947, Clóvis Candiota(patron of agricultural aviation since 1989) started the first agricultural flight from Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. This day was introduced by lawin 1989.
Dia do Pernambuco
(Pernambuco). Introduced in 2006. See below.
Pernambuco. É só Chegar.
Pernambuco – Brazil (English)
Dicionário de pernambuquês
Belezas de Pernambuco
SER PERNAMBUCANO É
Pernambuco, um pedacinho do Brasil
Dia Mundial do Fotógrafo e da Fotografia
(World day of the photographer and photography). On August 19, 1839, in front of an enthusiastic crowd at the Académie des Sciences and the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris, the secrets of the first photographic images were revealed by the romantic painter and engraver Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre(1787-1851). Already in January that year, his works were shown: still life of famous locations in Paris, made on a copper sheet, with a layer of polished silver leaf, he so-called daguerréotype. Unfortunately, a great fire in his laboratory destroyed a great part of it: his inventions and notes. Only 25 Daguerréotypes were saved. (See for explanatory video).
2003 Death of UN representative Sérgio Vieira de Mello (1948-2003) in Baghdad (Iraq).
Sérgio studied philosophy in Paris. During his studies, he started to work for the United Nations. Since 1981, Sérgio was a rising star. He then became chief adviser of the UN missions, in Cambodia, Rwanda, Kosovo, East Timor, and became High Commissioner of Refugees in 2002; In 2002, Sérgio became special representative in Baghdad, upon personal request of his chief Kofi Annan. Together with Sérgio, more 22 UN workers were killed in a bomb attack.
SÉRGIO VIEIRA DE MELLO
Sergio Vieira de Mello –
In memory of…
SERGIO – Trailer #2
1849 Birth of Joaquim Nabuco (1849-1910).
Joaquim Aurélio Barreto Nabuco de Araújo studied law in São Paulo, and continued in Recife. In 1869, he wrote “A escravidão (the slavery)”. There was a lot of commotion when Joaquim defended a black slave, who had killed his master. In 1872, his first book was published: Camões e os Lusíadas. As an elected representative, he defended the rights of the Indians, he condemned the exploration of the Xingú area, and opposed against the arrival of Chinese as substitutes of slaves at the plantations. He named this substitution the ‘Mongolization of our Country‘. Joaquim battled bitterly for the abolition of slavery, until the abolition of it in 1888. In 1869, he was one of the founders of the Brazilian Academy of Literature, and was named as secretary for life. Joaquim also was involved in the dispute of the partition of British Guyana, considered as a defeat for Brazil. He worked as a diplomat in London, and became the first Brazilian ambassador in the United States. He died there, after a long sickbed. Since 2006, his birth date is called the Dia do Pernambuco, thanks to his efforts for this state.
Joaquim Nabuco (1/4) – De Lá Pra Cá
Joaquim Nabuco (2/4) – De Lá Pra Cá
Joaquim Nabuco (3/4) – De Lá Pra Cá
Joaquim Nabuco (4/4) – De Lá Pra Cá
Diálogo com Joaquim Nabuco
1981 First broadcast of Brazilian TV channel SBT.
SBT, Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão, was founded in 1981, by the very popular presenter Silvio Santos. Silvio (1930, his real name is Senor Abravanel, son of Greek-Turkish migrants) presents, for almost fifty (!) years, a broad scale of TV programs, presumably amusement and family games. his nickname is therefore “O mensageira da alegria, the messenger of the laugh“. The first broadcast of SBT was the registration of the signing ceremony of the contract by Silvio and Brazilian president Ernesto Geisel. SBT suffered losses in the first decade of its existence, despite the growth of its market share. At present SBT claims to be watched by one quarter of Brazilian TV watchers. Almost no one has to be afraid to miss any second of the SBT programs, since the more than 100 satellite dishes guarantee a nationwide coverage of almost 100 percent.
Some curiosities about Silvio:despite his age of 80, he always gets up at six, and does his daily gymnastic routine. Thanks to two plastic surgeries (the most recent dates from 2005), his appearance is much younger. He frequently uses UV treatments, has his hair dyed every two weeks. He is very rich, his personal income is calculated to be 15 million reais per year. SBT has a value of about 1 to 1.5 billion reais, but Silvio only wants to sell his jewel for 2 billion. Besides TV activities, Silvio’s company also is holding a bank, insurances, leasing activities, and credit card administration. Silvio is very popular in Brazil. A poll in 1988 demonstrated that he would have won the presidential elections, if he had be one of the candidates. One year later, he became presidential candidate, but an administrative error blocked his candidacy. Personal drama for Silvio was the sequestration of Silvio and his family in 2001.
Nascimento do SBT no dia 19 de Agosto de 1981
Homenagem Silvio Santos 80 Anos
Conheça a Próxima Dona do SBT – Patrícia Abravanel
Dia da Unidade Nacional (National Unity). Attention is paid to the unity awareness of Brazilians. Unity of legislative, executive, controlling, and military powers against the powers of the civilians.
Dia dos Trabalhadores das Indústrias de Cimento, Materiais de Eletrônico, Hidraulico e Construção Civil (Employees of cement, electronic, hydraulic, and construction materials industries).
Dia de Combate a Discriminação (Combat against discrimination, MG)
Opening of Estádio Jornalista Mário Filho, better known as Maracanã Stadium, in Rio de Janeiro.
Maracanã is one of world’s biggest soccer stadiums. The FIFA World Cup finals of 1950 and 2014 were played there. The 1950 final, in which Brazil was beaten by Uruguay, was viewed by more almost two hundred thousand spectators. The name maracanã refers to a parrot that was common in the region before the start of the construction of the stadium: maracanã-guaçu. Journalist Mario Filho had contributed intensively in the realization of the stadium. He died before the inauguration. Two teams from Rio de Janeiro play their home matches in Maracanã: Flamengo and Fluminense.
1963 Death of composer Lamartine Babo
1906 First edition of newspaper ‘A Gazeta’, in São Paulo.
1556 Shipwreck of vessel ‘Nossa Senhora de Ajuda’.
The vessel, bound for Lisbon, carried Brazil’s first bishop: D. Pero Fernandes Sardinha. It was rumored that the bishop was captured and eaten by the Caeté indigenous.
Failed attack against Brazilian emperor Dom Pedro II.
1863 Start of the construction of Igreja Matriz de Nossa Senhora do Carmo, in Carmo (RJ).
1965 Departure of former governor of the state of Pernambuco Miguel Arraes to Algeria.
He exiled himself from Brazil.
1986 FIFA World Cup 1986: Brazil 4 x 0 Poland
2003 Earthquake of 2.4 degrees magnitude in Caruaru (PE)